# Learning objectives#

Chapter six provides an overview of vector data processing in Python. You will learn how geographic objects can be represented and manipulated in Python, how coordinate reference systems can be defined and modified, and learn how to conduct common GIS techniques, such as geocoding, spatial queries, spatial join, nearest neighbor analysis and vector overlay operations.

Basic knowledge of tabular data manipulation using the pandas library introduced in Part I is a prerequisite for learning to use geopandas for spatial data analysis in this section.

Learning objectives

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

Represent geographic vector objects in Python using the shapely library

Understand the basic data structures and methods of geopandas GeoDataFrames

Execute common geometric operations with points, lines and polygons

Define and reproject the coordinate reference system of a spatial dataset

Geocode addresses to coordinates using Python

Perform spatial queries and spatial join operations

Conduct nearest neighbor analysis

Perform and understand how different vector overlay operations work